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Sunday, June 2, 2024

Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors

Mkhitaryan, M., Avetisyan, T., Mkhoyan, A. et al. A case–control study on pre-, peri-, and neonatal risk factors associated with autism spectrum disorder among Armenian children. Sci Rep 14, 12308 (2024).

Our findings indicated that male gender, maternal weight gain, MgB6 usage, self-reported stress during pregnancy, pregnancy complications, and labor-inducing drugs were linked to a significant rise in ASD odds (Fig. 1). Conversely, the use of Duphaston during pregnancy, longer interpregnancy intervals, and higher birth height were associated with reduced odds of ASD (Fig. 1). These observations underpin the significance of regional investigations to uncover the unique environmental factors contributing to ASD. The implications are profound, as several identified factors may be preventable or adjustable, highlighting the urgency of implementing evidence-based practices and public health interventions. Emphasizing a culture of health promotion, screenings, timely diagnosis, and disease prevention strategies, particularly among pregnant women, holds promise for reducing ASD and related disorders. Moreover, further prospective and focused research is imperative to discern the interplay between various factors and gene-environment interactions that may serve as potential ASD risk factors. Enhanced understanding in this area could lead to earlier detection and improved ASD management. Future studies incorporating analyses of biological samples for genetic, epigenetic, and inflammatory markers will be pivotal in elucidating underlying mechanisms and ushering in a new phase of research focusing on modifiable risk factors for developmental disorders.